Подготовка к ГИА-2014. FLIGHT Inventions That Changed the World

I Read the article and answer your teacher’s questions.

FLIGHT Inventions That Changed the World

For many centuries people watched birds and dreamed that they could fly. We cannot fly like birds: we don` t have enough strength in our arms to move wings up and down. We also really need the power of an engine to drive up forward. Many people died learning these lessons, before controlled flight became possible.

The first flying machine which could carry a human being was built in the in Spain in 875.  Reports tell us that the inventor flew some distance, but the landing was hard: the man hurt his back badly and was never able to fly again.

It was possible that the news of his flight reached England, carried there by men returning from war in the Middle East. Whether this is true or not, in 1010 a man called Oliver jumped off a church roof in Mulmesbury. This time we know the distance of his flight - 125 steps.

In the last years of the 15th century, the Italian Leonardo da Vinci studied the flight of birds and made a number of drawings of flying machines. His early machines tried to copy the movement of birds` wings, which he didn’t fully understand. But less than 10 years before his death in 1519, he drew a machine with wings that didn’t move. One of the machines was built and it did fly.

In 15 36 in France, Denis Bolor returned to the idea of moving wings. He tried to fly using wings that were moved up and down. The idea didn` t work and he fell to his death. (1122)



II Read the text and say how many bank holidays there are in all the countries of the UK.

Speak about holidays in Russia.


What are 'bank' holidays?

British bank holidays are Public Holidays and have been recognized since 1871. The name Bank Holiday comes from the time when banks were shut and so no trading could take place.

There are currently eight permanent bank and public holidays in England, Wales and Scotland and 10 in Northern Ireland. These include Christmas Day and Good Friday, which in England, Wales and Northern Ireland are common law holidays (they are not specified by law as bank holidays but have become customary holidays because they are celebrated by everybody.

Even though banks are still closed on these days many shops today now remain open. Shops, museums and other public attractions, such as historic houses and sports centres, may close on certain public holidays, particularly Christmas Day.



III Speak to your teacher. You begin the conversation.


In October you’re going to England. Speak to your foreign friend, who lives there, and ask him/her what the weather is usually like there in October; how often it changes. Ask your friend to recommend you what clothes to take with you.


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